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Voltage Regulation

The term “voltage regulation” is used to discuss long-term variations in voltage. It does not include short term variations, which are generally called sags, dips, or swells.The ability of equipment to handle steady state voltage variations varies from equipment to equipment. The steady state voltage variation limits for equipment is usually part of the equipment …


Flicker is a very specific problem related to human perception and incandescent light bulbs.


The electric power distribution system is designed to operate with sinusoidal voltages and currents. But not all waveforms are sine waves.

Transient Overvoltages

Transient overvoltages are brief, high-frequency increases in voltage on AC mains.

Voltage Sags (Dips) and Swells

Voltage sags - or dips which are the same thing - are brief reductions in voltage, typically lasting from a cycle to a second or so, or tens of milliseconds to hundreds of milliseconds.

Eleven Quick, Simple Fixes to Increase Sag Immunity

Here are eleven quick, simple fixes that will increase voltage sag immunity. Of course, like every engineering change, there are tradeoffs that you will need to consider as you're selecting a solution.

Sources of Voltage Sags

What are Voltage Sags? Voltage sags are brief reductions in the voltage on ac power systems. (The American “sag” and the British “dip” have exactly the same meaning, and may be used interchangeably.) How brief? Between 1/2 cycle and a few seconds. Disturbances that last less than 1/2 cycle are commonly called “low frequency transients”; …

Voltage Sag Sensitivity

Why does equipment fail when there are voltage sags on ac power systems? There is one obvious way, and four not-so-obvious ways. Here is some information about voltage sag sensitivity.

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